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Saddam Madab Hussein
Widad Kurdi


Prison is one of the necessities of social life in all parts of the Arab Islamic state. For this reason, the ruling authority was keen to establish a tight administrative organization that contributes to imposing justice and applying the law to everyone. Issuing and implementing the ruling is subject to special fees that moved from the East to Andalusia, and the Muslims were conquered. Andalusia itself is a major transformation for the people of Andalusia to get rid of injustice because the law came with principles based on justice and justice for the oppressed, and the application of the law was embodied in the principle of punishment in reducing imprisonment. Political history witnessed the imprisonment of many figures, jurists and scholars, and the imprisonment of al-Mutabbaq was mentioned in Arab-Islamic historical writings, where it is depicted in a way It is horrific due to the severity of its brutality and the methods of torture in it, and the imprisonment of any country, emirate, or kingdom in Andalusia reflects the strength and essence of authority. It also reflects the justice, tolerance, and flexibility of applying Islamic law in preserving the safety of society. Andalusian prisons came to protect the interests of the people and discipline prisoners, and Andalusia, like other Islamic countries, knew punishment. Prison since the beginning of the presence of Muslims in it, from the Islamic conquest and the era of the governors, as well as the procedures followed in the era of the emirate, the caliphate, and the era of sects, and the seeds of division and disagreement that resulted from it. Andalusia was divided into multiple states, and the presence of prisons is linked to the security of the state because imposing the law is by force and holding those who break the law accountable is a deterrent to others. For all of this, our research in this topic came about the procedures of the authority responsible for issuing prison orders in Andalusia. The authority was multiple, including governors, princes, caliphs, governors of regions, judges, and muhtasib. All of these had the right to issue prison orders against those who violated them, so punitive institutions were an urgent necessity in Andalusian society.  


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Hussein, S. M., & Kurdi, W. (2024). Procedures of the authority responsible for issuing prison orders in Andalusia. Journal of Tikrit University for Humanities, 31(6), 437–457.


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