Main Article Content
The goal of the present research is to identify the history of the Syrian Agricultural Bank since its inception, as well as to identify the points of strengths and weaknesses that affected the national economy in general and the agricultural in particular in this period in the history of Syria. The researcher followed the inductive approach and the historical approach in dealing with the subject that included the history of The Agricultural Bank and the features of agricultural relations under Ottoman rule and beyond until 1958 AD, which is the year of unity between Egypt and Syria, as the developments that occurred to the Agricultural Bank were presented through the laws and legislations regarding the regulation of agriculture and the agricultural bank that had a great impact on the economic and social fields before influencing Agricultural field.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
College of Education for Humanities, TIKRIT UNIVERSITY. THIS IS AN OPEN ACCESS ARTICLE UNDER THE CC BY LICENSE http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
(1)Youssef Al-Hakim, Syria and the Ottoman era, Dar Al-Nahar Publishing, 4th floor, Beirut, 1991.
(2) Muhammad al -Khatib, the Levant in the Ottoman era, Dar Raslan, Damascus, 2020.
(3) Abd al -Hadi Abbas, Land and Agricultural Reform in Syria, Arab Vigrementary House for Authorship, Translation and Publishing, Damascus, 1962 .
(4) Nashwan Al-Atassi, Development of Syrian Society 1831-2011, Atlas House for Publishing, Translation and Cultural Production, Beirut, 2015.
(5)Philip Khoury, Arab cities and nationalism, Arab Research Foundation, Beirut, 1993.
(6) Kral Barbim , Ottoman Rule in Damascus 1708-1758 , Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ,1980
(7)Longrigg, S.H., Syria and Lebanon Under French Mandate, London 1958, Oxford University, APPENDIX.
(8) Hanna Potato, Syrian farmers - sons of their least -informed rural rules and policies, translated by: Abdullah Fadel & Raed Al -Naqshbandi, Arab Center for Research and Policy Studies, Qatar, 2014.
(9) Abdel -Hakim Abdel -Ghani Al -Qasim, History of Egyptian missions to Europe - Asr Muhammad Ali, Madbouly Library, Cairo, 2010.
(10) Abdullah Hanna, photos from the life of societies, Syria, the twentieth century - collected by scholars at the Cultural Institute, Damascus, the Arab Center for Research and Policy Studies, Qatar, 2019.
(11) Jamil Abdel -Qader Akbar, Earth Building in Islam, Al -Risala Foundation for Printing, Publishing and Distribution, Istanbul, 2020 .
(12) Abdullah Hanna, pages from the history of political parties in Syria, the twentieth century and their social agarios, the Arab Center for Research and Policy Studies, Qatar, 2018.
(13) Fawzi Hobeish, Anthology of Ottoman Laws, Arab Renaissance House, Cairo, 1991, p. 36.
(14) Bou Ali Yassin, the story of the land and the Syrian farmer, 1858-1979 AD, Dar Al-Haqat, Damascus, 1979 .
(15) Munir Al-Hamash, Syrian economy in forty years-An analytical study of economic and social developments in Syria 1971-2010, Al-Maaref Forum, Beirut, 2010.
(16) Muhammad Ali Al-Saleh, Department of the Syrian Economy at the time of the French Mandate 1918-1946 AD and its effects after independence, the French Institute for Al-Aqsa, France, 2021 .
(17) Zuhair Ghazlan, The Political Economy of Damascus during the nineteenth century, translation: White Queen, Ministry of Culture - Syrian General Book Authority, Damascus, 2008, p. 62.
(18)Yassin Shukr, Agricultural issue in Syria, lectures, Institute of Media Preparation, Damascus, 1970 .
(19)Kamal Deeb, contemporary history of Syria, from the French Mandate to the summer of 2011, Dar Al -Nahar, Beirut, 2012.
(20) Yahya Ardaki, The Modern Syrian Economy, Publications of the Ministry of Culture and National Guidance in the Syrian Arab Republic, Damascus, 1972, Part 1.
(21) Abdul Aziz Muhammad Awad, The Ottoman Administration in the Syrian State 1864-1914 AD, Master Thesis, College of Arts, Ain Shams University, Cairo, 2007.
(22)Badr al-Din al-Sibai, lights on the foreign drawing in Syria 1580-1958 AD, Dar Al-Jamheb, Damascus, 1967 .
(23) Saeed Hamada, Monetary and Corporate System in Syria, Publications of the College of Science and Arts, American University, Beirut, 1935 .
(24) Muhammad Kurd Ali, Plans of Al -Sham, Part 3, Al -Nuri Library, Damascus, 1983 .
(25) Hana Sultan Dawood, Farmers ’response to savings and agricultural lending, PhD thesis (unpublished), College of Agriculture and Forests, University of Mosul, Iraq.
(26) Munir Al -Hamash, Economic Thought in Political Discourse in the twentieth century, Bisan Publishing and Distribution, 2004.
(27) Shafi’a Muhammad Mahmoud Idris, political and economic transformations in Iraq and Syria and its impact on economic relations (1921-1958), Master Thesis (unpublished), College of Literature, University of Mosul, 2009.
(28) Hana Sultan Daid, Cooperative Bank in Iraq - A comparative study of some neighboring countries, Journal of Regional Studies, Center for Regional Studies, Mosul University, M. 2, A 3, 2005 .
(29) The Syrian Arab Republic, Syria Economic Development - The Mission Report formed by the International Bank for Urban Return and Economic Development, Arabization and publishing: the Monetary and Credit Council ,Damascus, 1955.
(30) Sayed Abdel -Al, Military coups in Syria, Madbouly Library, 2006 .
(31) Nahed Abdel Karim, Economic and Social Issues in Syria 1946-1958 AD, Tlass Dar for Studies, Translation and Publishing, 1996.
(32) Abeer Al -Juhani, An Analytical Study for the Development of the Work of Agricultural Bank in Syria, Master Thesis (Unpublished), College of Agriculture, Al -Baath University, 2009.
(33) Hussein Al -Qadi, on economic reform in Syria, Dar Al -Rida Publishing, Damascus, 2002.
(34) The Official Gazette of the United Arab Republic, Issue (25), on 28/8/1958 .
(35) Hassan Al-Hakim, Memory-Pages from the History of Modern Syria 1920-1958 AD, Section Two, New Book House, Damascus, 1996 .
(36) The Official Gazette of the United Arab Republic, No. (25), on 28/8/1958.
(37) The Official Gazette of the United Arab Republic, Issue (25), previous source.
(38) Syrian Arab Republic , Ministry of Agriculture and Agricultural Reform ,The final report on agricultural loans, a project to assist in institutional reinforcement and agricultural policies, United Nations Agriculture and Food Organization, Damascus, 2001.
(39) Roa'a Jamal Khadr Khalaf al-Jubouri, economic and social developments in the Surah 1946-1966 AD , PhD thesis (unpublished), College of Education for Humanities, Tikrit University, 2021 .
(40) Kamal Youssef Al -Dawini, the restructuring of the Arab banking sector, Arab Publishing and Distribution, Cairo, 2017, p. 43.
(41) Ahmed Al -Alaius, Agricultural Finance, College of Agriculture, University of Aleppo, 1996.