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The significance of the research lies in the study of the spatial expansion of the city of Balad and what are the factors that helped in the expansion of the city in certain directions and what are the main determinants of the expansion process in other directions, as a set of natural and human factors affecting the expansion process were reached, whether they were supplementary factors or specific factors determining the growth of the city and its expansion is represented by Ishaqi irrigation project from the southern side of the city and the Shatita River from the western side and the shrine of Imam Sayyid Muhammad from the eastern side, as well as the role of agricultural land and its impact as a determining factor for the city’s growth and expansion process. There are natural or human factors that were encouraging expansion the city sometimes, but it became one of the determining factors for expansion at other times, as is the case in the presence of the shrine of Imam Sayyid Muhammad (peace be upon him). The research is also interested in studying the problem of depleting the city’s lands, as there are no longer empty and untapped lands that the city can expand towards due to the fact that most of the city’s neighborhoods have become one of the closed and non-expandable neighborhoods as a result of the large urban and residential growth of the city in light of the large increase in population size as a result of increasing the naturalness and the migration factor, as the importance of the city in terms of religious, economic and social aspects had a great impact on that, as it became one of the cities that attract the population. It was also concluded that the expansion of the city went through different stages, as the expansion of the city was random at the beginning of its inception, then the growth and expansion of the city became in a way planned since 1968, when the first basic design of the city was laid, then followed by a number of designs and modifications, thus the expansion of the city went according to what was planned. The city and on agricultural lands and urban use lands, so work should be done to develop a new basic design for the city that determines the appropriate direction for expansion away from the presence of influencing factors and determinants.
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