Main Article Content

Mohamed Majid Hammad Shehab
Nasiba Abdulaziz Abdullah


In mid-March 2011, Syria witnessed popular protests that were affected by the events that preceded them in Tunisia and Egypt, which paved the way for popular discontent in Syria with the political, economic and social conditions that the country is going through. Demonstrations took place in several Syrian cities to demand freedom and real reforms, then the ceiling of demands gradually increased until it reached the demand for the overthrow of the regime of Prime Minister Bashar al-Assad, with the expansion and escalation of protests. The excessive complexity of the situation led to a violent armed confrontation between the Syrian government and the Syrian opposition. Which led to the transition of the Syrian issue from an internal crisis between the government and the people to a complex regional and international crisis.


Metrics Loading ...

Article Details

How to Cite
Hammad Shehab, M. M., & Abdullah, N. A. (2023). The Syrian crisis and its internal causes. Journal of Tikrit University for Humanities, 30(1, 2), 188–199.


Ahmed Salim Hussein Zorob, Regional Political Changes and Their Implications for the Balance of Regional Powers in the Middle East 2003-2020, Master Thesis (unpublished), Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, Al-Azhar University_Gaza, 2013.

Akram Muhammad Ismail Mohsen Kassab, Regional and International Dimensions of Russian-Syrian Relations 2000-2012, Master's Thesis (unpublished), Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Al-Azhar University _ Gaza, 2014.

Iyad Rashid Muhammad al-Karim, The Western Spring Revolutions between Differing Visions and Attitudes in International and Regional Interests, Tikrit University Journal for Human Sciences, Volume 26, Issue 8,2019.

Rami Abdullah Abdel Mohsen Abdel Qader, The International Balance of Power and Its Impact on the Syrian Crisis, Master’s Thesis (unpublished), Management and Politics Academy for Graduate Studies, Al-Aqsa University, 2014.

Muhammad Al-Omari and others, Five Cities in the Syrian Revolution 2011_2019, House of Hawz for Research and Publishing, (Dr. M, Dr. T).

Al Jazeera Net website, "This is how the Syrian revolution began", an article published on the International Information Network (Internet), on March 5, 2012, viewed January 10, 2021, the following link:

David W. Leech, Syria, The Fall of the Assad Kingdom, translated by: Antoine Bassil, Al-Matta’at Company for Publishing and Distribution, (Lebanon, 2014).

Kamal Deeb, Crisis in Syria, the Explosion of the Interior and the Return of the International Conflict 2011-2013, Dar Al-Nahar Publishing, (Beirut, 2013).

The Syrian Foundation for Public Opinion Studies and Research, Daraa, the story of a revolution.. from peacefulness to the current reality, (Turkey, 2017).

A document issued by the Arab Socialist Baath Party - the Syrian Arab Republic - the Regional Command, document number 3370/30, dated 6/32/2011, published on May 22, 2019, viewed on January 11, 2021, on the following link:

; Falah Samour Al-Jabour, The Russian Strategy towards the Middle East during the Putin Era (2012-2018) (Syria is a case study), Master's thesis (unpublished), College of Science and Arts, Middle East University, Jordan, 2018.

Siham Fathi Abu Mustafa, The Syrian Crisis in the Light of Regional and International Balances 2011-2013, Master's Thesis (unpublished), Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, Al-Azhar University - Gaza, 2015.

Zoubaida Sanusi, The Repercussions of the Syrian Crisis on Russian-Turkish Relations (2013-2017), Master's Thesis (unpublished), Faculty of Law and Political Science, Larbi Ben M'hidi University, Oum El Bouaghi, Algeria, 2017.

Rafid Ahmed Muhammad, Sectarianism and Conflict, Security Challenges in the Middle East and Changing the Balance of Power, Journal of Tikrit University for Human Sciences, Volume 25, Issue, 2019.

Samer Salman Al-Jubouri, US-Russian competition in the Middle East - the Syrian crisis as a model - Dar Al-Rafidain, (Beirut, 2018).

Maryam Maleki, Russian Foreign Policy towards the Syrian Crisis (2011_2014), Master's Thesis (unpublished), Faculty of Law and Political Science, University of Djilali Bounama in Khemis Miliana, 2015.

Amnesty International report, “It destroys your humanity.” Torture, disease and death in Syria’s prisons, Index No. MDE24/4508/2016, 2016.

Tamara Kazem al-Asadi and Muhammad Ghassan al-Shabout, “The Storm of Change: The Arab Spring and Political Transformations in the Arab Region”, Arab Democratic Center for Strategic, Political and Economic Studies, (Berlin, 2018).

Azad Muhammad Ali and others, Background of the Revolution, Syrian Studies, Arab Center for Research and Policy Studies, (Beirut, 2013).

Amani Hani Abd Atallah, Israeli policy towards the conflict in Syria 2011-2013, Master’s thesis (unpublished), Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Al-Azhar University - Gaza, 2015.

Shatha Zaki Hassan, “Political change in Syria between internal demands and external pressures”, Al-Mustansiriya Journal for Arab and International Studies, Baghdad, No. 52, d.T.

Muhammad Muhammad al-Saftawi, Russia’s position in the international system and its impact on the management of the Syrian crisis 2011-2016, Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, Al-Azhar University-Gaza, 2016.

Rabie Nasr and others, The Syrian crisis, its economic and social roots and effects, the Syrian Center for Policy Research in the Syrian Society for Culture and Knowledge, 2013.

Jalal Murzuq, The Role of Regional and International Parties in the Syrian Crisis, Master's Thesis (unpublished), Larbi Ben M'hidi University - Oum El Bouaghi, Faculty of Law and Political Science, Algeria, 2018.

Zahidi Abdel Majid Samour, History of the Contemporary Arabs, Al-Quds University for Publishing and Distribution, (Cairo, 2008).

Dalal Al-Tijani and Sarah Boulosa, Regional Interventions in the Syrian Crisis, "A Case Study of Iran and Turkey", Master's Thesis (unpublished), Faculty of Law and Political Science, University of Martyr Hama Lakhdar in the Valley, Algeria, 2017.