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Alaa Hamid Rashid


    The outbreak of World War II is an indication that the mind of the lights is out of its marked limits and from the purpose for which it was founded, and then the emergence of the role of the Frankfurt Monetary School, which reshaped the enlightenment mind according to the requirements of contemporary reality and on the basis of what has been required since the modern era.Frankfurt's beginnings with the first generation were distinguished by its pessimistic views of political reality and European society, and the reward of the enlightenment project that is now invested in the annihilation of the mind, and this mind, which was founded by modernity since the Revolution of Kupernik and then with Descartes and Kant and Bacon, carries missionary factors to enlighten the mind and get out of intellectual closure. The violence and contradictions experienced by society in its structure are only the result of a serious breakthrough in the path of the enlightened mind, as it should be considered to return it to its right approach, and the most important one in this direction is Max Horkheimer to single out a book entitled "Traditional theory and critical theory" and to rearrange the methodological tools that dominated the studying mind of society from an economic point of view, outlining theoretical patterns. Traditionalism is closed to itself and its field of operation, and its criticism was directed specifically at Marxist philosophy, as was its relentless pursuit of rethinking the concept of "progress" and the concept of "theory", so philosophical criticism is based on preconceived perceptions and concepts of logic, approaches, foundations and concepts. The theory became more space when it was assumed that it would involve the integration of many knowledge elements to complete the parameters of diagnosis, starting from the search for the end of treatment and finding solutions, hence Horkheimer's criticism of Marxism based on the issue of limiting it to criticism of the political economy to overcome class inequality and crises of political society, and critical thought aspires to reorganize the process of growth that positions the mind within the thinking practice and made this mind a tool that not only drains and consumes ideas. Rather, it is a thought that produces and explores what is recognized and obvious, and this rational theory points towards choice, habit, natural and accepted. My interest in research was focused on the critical ideas of the Frankfurt School of Horkheimer because his ideas were a review of the processes of thinking and theory in contemporary Western society through Marxist analysis and interpretation, and revealed the positions of closure, science, formality and stereotype in analysis, recreation, clarity, consistency and credibility, which the enlightened mind might have avoided.


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Rashid, A. H. (2023). The concept of philosophical criticism of the Frankfurt School Max Horkheimer as a model. Journal of Tikrit University for Humanities, 30(1, 1), 262–285.


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