Main Article Content

Mohammed Yehiya Ahmed
Hammadi Salman Hammadi


The French protectorate was imposed on Tunisia since 1881. Education was not absent from the country before that era, so the country contained a number of religious and Quranic schools, the most important of which was the Zitouna Mosque, which is one of the most famous Islamic schools. After the French occupation, the occupiers tried to change the concepts of education by introducing Western curricula and restricting Islamic schools in order to push the Tunisian people to abandon them. This research sheds light on education in Tunisia since the era of the French protectorate until 1938.


Metrics Loading ...

Article Details

How to Cite
Ahmed, M. Y., & Hammadi, H. S. (2022). Education in Tunisia 1881-1938. Journal of Tikrit University for Humanities, 29(12, 3), 269–285.


- Jamal al-Din Darawil, Elite and Freedom, Tunisia in the First Third of the Twentieth Century, Dar Sahnoun for Publishing and Distribution, (Tunisia, 2011),

- Ali al-Zaidi, Zaytouni education in light of the reform of the year 1933, Academic Journal, first year, issue (7) (9) special issue, Manouba University,(Tunisia, 2012)

- Muhammad Dhaifallah, The Tunisian Student Movement (1927-1939), Publications of the Tamimi Foundation for Scientific Research and Information, Tunisia,(1999(

- Mohamed Daifallah, Biographies of Activists in the Tunisian Student Movement (1910-1991), Research Series, University Publications in Manouba,(Tunisia, 2014),

- Muhammad Al-Fadil Ibn Ashour, The Literary and Intellectual Movement in Tunisia (in the 19th and 20th Centuries AD), Al-Majma’ Al-Tunisi for Science, Literature and Arts – House Al-Hikma, Tunisia, 2009),

- Hayat Al-Majri, From “Educating Boys” to Primary Education in the City of Tunis during the Ottoman Era, Arab Nuqoosh Publishing House, (Tunisia, 2014),

- Abdul Karim Al-Mannai, The Tunisians and the Case of Primary Education for Muslim Girls from 1881-1956 Certificate of Proficiency in Research College of Humanities and Social Sciences in Tunis, (Tunisia, 1997)

- Adel Ben Youssef, the Tunisian modern elite, students of French universities: 1880-1956, Faculty of Arts and Humanities in Sousse and Dar El Mizan For publication, Tunis, 2006),

- Muhammad al-Taher Ibn Ashour, Isn't the morning near, The Tunisian Company for the Arts of Painting, Tunisia, 1988

- Al-Taher Al-Haddad, Islamic Education and the Reform Movement in Al-Zaytouna Mosque, The Reform Blog in Tunisia, The Complete Works, investigated by Muhammad Anwar Bousnina, The Arab Book House, Tunisia, 2012,

- Tunisia, Arab Thought Forum, Amman, d. T, p. 79

- Abdul Qadir Al-Muhairi, The Beginnings of the University Before Independence: The Institute of Graduate Studies in particular, Academia Journal, First Year, Issue (3), Manouba University, (Tunisia, 2012),

- Al-Sahbi bin Mansour, Al-Zaytouna, History and its margins, a deconstructive reading of the Zaytouna phenomenon from its inception to reform, Center for Islamic Studies in Kairouan, Al-Atrash Book Complex (Tunisia, 2016),

- Mukhtar Al-Ayashi, Al-Zaytouna and Al-Zaytouna in the Contemporary History of Tunisia (1883-1958), University Publishing Center, Al-Zaytouna University, (Tunisia,(2003)

- Andre Julian, The French Reconstructors and the Tunisian Youth Movement, The Arabization of Muhammad Mazali and Al-Bashir Bin Salama, The Tunisian Company For distribution, Tunis, 1986)

- Latifa Al-Akhdar, Tariq Islam: A Study of its Position in Society and in the National Issue, Siras Publishing, (Tunisia, 1993),

- Muhammad Dhaifallah, Tunisian Students and the Births of the Nation in the Middle of the Twentieth Century, Library, Tunis, Tunisia, 2016,

- Mossadeq Al-Jalidi, Pioneers of Educational Reform in Tunisia: Ibn Khaldoun, Al-Taher Bin Ashour – Al-Taher Al-Haddad Al-Khidr Hussein, Dar Sahar For publication, (Tunisia, 2009),

- Muhammad Dhaifallah, the auditorium and the chair, research on Tunisian students between the fifties and seventies, Alaeddin Library, (Sfax, (2009(

- Noureddine Dokki and others, Tunisian society and colonial exploitation, a series of documents and texts from the contemporary history of Tunisia, the Higher Institute for the History of the National Movement, (Tunisia, 1997)

- Ali Al-Mahjoubi, The Modern Renaissance in the 19th Century: Why Did It Fail in Egypt and Tunisia and Succeed in Japan, The Tunisian Publishing House, (Tunisia, 1983),

- Ali al-Zaidi, History of the educational system of the modern Zaytouni people (1951 (1965), Publications of the Research Center in Library SciencesInformation, (Tunisia, 1986),

- Abu Al-Qasim Muhammad Karoo, Tunisian education between the present and the future, Al-Baath book publications, Al-Tarqi Press, Tunisia, 1955

- State Writing for National Education Our Educational Resurgence Since Independence, Al-Shamal Press – Tunisia, Publications of the Educational Bureau, (Tunisia, 1963),