Main Article Content

Benaz Ismail Adawi


The study deals with the waste and extravagance of the important subjects of history, and despite the adjectives in the life of the Seljuk sisters. It is found that historians did not touch much on the writing and detection of waste and extravagance during the period, and revealed these manifestations of the social life of the private class, which is Wastefulness and extravagance of the wives and sisters of the Seljuk sultans. This study aims to show the role of Seljuk women in wasting money and state property in the period (447-592 Ah / 1055-AD) and to identify the amount of its role in those aspects, while demonstrating the extent of its independence behind their authority in the administrative and financial, and its management, which authorized it to spend the huge amount of money in luxury, fun, weddings, housing and clothing until it was counted as an integral part of the lives of the wives and sisters of sultans and their mothers, even Wall Their workers, who exceeded reasonable limits, and it is natural in urbanization, if there is a lot of money in the state to shower the sultan and kings in their efforts, especially in the state and an absolute sultan to dispose of money and the advocates of his sultans, it is no surprise that we saw that money is being made to stop harming the state or blocking mouths of people of sedition, But they go beyond that by the wives and sisters of sultans that talking about sultans does not diminish the value and place of the Seljuk state of the Abbasid caliphate, especially since the cultural, social and intellectual maturity of its era, their eras of the old times are known as luxury. And the extravagance in their palaces inside and outside Baghdad and they were boasting about titles, palaces, clothes, ornaments, rare and precious jewelry as well as furniture decorating in their homes in a very exaggerated way, but I tried to confirm a very important issue which is waste of money and extravagance In this period, it had serious effects on the state, and was one of .


Metrics Loading ...

Article Details

How to Cite
Adawi, B. I. (2022). The Waste Made by Al Khawateen Alsaljuqyat (447-590 H /1055-1021M). Journal of Tikrit University for Humanities, 29(8, 1), 316–335.


First: Manuscripts:

- Dada Gargud, The Book of Ddam Qurqud by the Oguzan Community, Dresden, Ea,86,1916.

Second: Sources:

- Ibn al-Atheer: Abu al-Hassan Ali bin Abi al-Karm Mohammed bin Al-Shaibani (T630 Ah/1232 AD).

- Full in history, a house issued for printing and publishing, Beirutn 1966.

- Isfahani: Amuddin Mohammed bin Mohammed bin Hamed (T597 Ah/1301 AD)

- The history of the State of Al-Saljuk, abbreviation of Sheikh Al-Fath bin Ali bin Mohammed al-Bandari Al-Isfahani, I3, Dar Al-Jadwaq, Beirut, 1980.

- Bukhari, Mohammed bin Ismail bin Ibrahim bin Al-Mughira (T. 256 Ah/870 AD).

- Saheeh Al-Bukhari, achieved by Taha Gbalraf Saad, Library of Faith, Mansoura, 2003

- Al-Bahqi, Ali Bin Zeid (565 Ah/1169 AD)

- The History of Behiq, translated by Youssef al-Hadi, Dar Aqr, Damascus, 1984.

- Al-Bahqi, Mohammed bin Al-Hassan (470 Ah/1077 AD).

- The History of Al-Beheqi, translated by Yahya Al-Khashab and Sadiq Nashat, Cairo Printing House, 1956.

- Ibn Tager Bardi, Jamal al-Din Abu al-Muhasin Yusuf (T874 Ah/1470 AD)

- The bright stars in the kings of Egypt and Cairo, the Egyptian Public Foundation, Cairo, D.T.

- Ibn al-Jawzi, Abu al-Faraj Abdulrahman bin Ali bin Mohammed (597 Ah/1200 AD)

- Regular in the history of kings and nations, study and investigation: Mohammed Abdelkader Atta, Mustafa Abdelkader Atta, I1, House of Scientific Books, Beirut, 1992.

- Husseini: Abu al-Hassan Ali bin Nasser al-Husseini (T622 Ah/1224 AD)

- Seljuk State News, Investigation: Mohammed Noureddine, I2, Dar Read, Beirut, 1986.

- Ibn Khalkan: Abu Al-Abbas Ahmed bin Mohammed bin Ibrahim (T681 Ah/1282 AD)

- The deaths of dignitaries and the news of the sons of time, investigation: Youssef Ali Tawil, Maryam Qassem Taweel, Scientific Book House, Beirut, 1998.

- Al-Dhahabi, Hafiz Shamseddine Mohammed bin Ahmed bin Osman (748 Ah/1347 AD)

- Flags by the deaths of flags, investigation: Mustafa Ben Ali Awad, Rabie Abu Bakr Abdel Baki, Cultural Books Foundation, Beirut, 1998.

- The history of Islam and the deaths of celebrities and flags, achieved by Bashar Awad Marouf - Saleh Mahdi Abbas Al-Resala Foundation, Beirut, 1988.

- The Biography of the Flags of the Nobles, i3, Al-Resala Beirut Foundation, 1986.

- Al-Rawandi, Frozen Bin Ali bin Suleiman (T602 Ah/1256 AD).

- The comfort of the breasts, verse of pleasure in the history of the Seljuk state, translated by: Abdul Naeem Fouad Al-Sayed, Dar al-Qalam

Cairo, 1960.

- Ibn al-Sa'i, Ali bin Anjeb bin Tajeddine Al-Khazen (T674 Ah/1275 AD)

- Women of the Caliphs, named after the caliphs of the free and nodding imams, investigation: Mustafa Jawad, Dar al-Ma'afa, Cairo, 1993.

- Ibn al-Jawzi,Youssef bin Qaz Ogli (T654 Ah/1256 AD)

- The mirror of time in the history of dignitaries incidents (440-490 Ah) investigation of Qassim Yazbek, Beirut, 1984.

- Ibn Saad, Mohammed bin Saad bin Mene'a (230 Ah/845 AD)

- The Great Classes, Dar Sader, Beirut, D.T.

- Al-Suyuti, Abdul Rahman bin Abi Bakr al-Suyuti (T/M)

- History of the Caliphs, Investigation: Mohammed Mohieddin Abdel Hamid, Egyptian Library, 1952.

- Safadi, Salaheddine Khalil bin Aybek (T764 Ah/1363 AD)

- The Death Toll, Investigation: Ahmed Arnaout, Turki Mustafa, Arab Heritage Revival House, Beirut, 2000.

- The son of the Hebrew, Abu al-Faraj Jamal al-Din ibn al-Hebrew (685 Ah/1286 AD).

- The History of Time, transferred to Arabic Father Isaac Widow, I2, Dar al-Mashreq, Beirut, 1986.

- The son of General Hambali, Abu al-Falah Abdulhai bin Ahmed (T1089 Ah/1679 AD).

- Gold nuggets in the news of gold, investigation: Mahmoud Al-Arnout, i1, Dar Ibn Kabir, Damascus, 1997.

- Al-Tachshandi, Ahmed Ben Ali (T821 Ah/1418 AD)

- He became the most ashi in the construction industry, investigation: Abdelkader Zakkar, Ministry of Culture, Damascus, 1981.

- Al-Kutbi, Mohammed bin Shaker (764 Ah/1363 AD).

The deaths and tails of them were missed, investigation: Ihsan Abbas, Dar Sader, Beirut, 1973.

- Ibn Kabir, Abu al-Fida Ismail bin Omar (T774 Ah/1373 AD)

- Beginning and End, Dar al-Fikr, Beirut, 1987.

- Al-Massoudi, Abu al-Hassan Ali bin Al Hussein (T346 Ah/957 AD)

- Gold Meadows and Essence Minerals, Modern Library, Beirut, 2005.

- Ibn Maser, Abu Al-Fadl Jamal al-Din Mohammed bin Makram (T630 Ah/1234 AD)

- San Al-Arab, Bulaq Edition, Cairo, 1300 AD.

- Ibn Al-Mosulia, Secretary of State Alaa bin Al Hassan (T497 Ah/1104 AD)

- Letters of the Secretary of State, Investigation of Essam Aqla, Zayed Center for Heritage and History, Al Ain, 2003.

- Al-Nuwairi, Shihab al-Din Ahmed bin Abdul Wahab (733 Ah/1323 AD)

- The End of The Arab in the Arts of Literature, Investigation: Ahmed Kamal Zaki, General Book Authority, Cairo, 1980.

- Yakut al-Hamwi Shihab al-Din Abu Abdullah (T626 Ah / 1238 AD)

- Dictionary of Countries, Dar Sader, Beirut, 2001.

Third: References:

- Iqbal, Abbas:

- The history of Iran after Islam from the beginning of the Pure State to the end of the Qajar state (205-1343 Ah /820-1186 AD), quoted from Persian and presented to him and commented on it: Mohammed Aladdin Mansour, House of Culture and Distribution, Cairo, 1989.

- Amin, Hussein:

- The history of Iraq in the Seljuk era, the Civil Library, Baghdad, 1965.

- Gardener: Karam et al.

- Upholstered in language, i27, Dar al-Mashreq, Beirut, 198 AD.

- Bosworth, Clifford:

- Dynasties in Islamic history study in history and genealogy, translated by Hussein Ali Al-Laboudi, I2, Arab Sail Foundation, Kuwait, D-T.

- Al-Termanini, Abdeslam:

- Events of the Islamic history in order of years, i2, tlass studies and publishing, Damascus, 1988.

- Sultan, Tarek Fathi:

- Islamic History in the Abbasid era (334-656 Ah /945-1258 AD) Lebanese Academic Foundation Beirut, 2014.

- Abdul-Masih, George Dmitry:

- Arabic language, (a lengthy dictionary of Arabic and its modern terms) Library of Lebanon, Beirut, 1993.

Fourth: Magazines:

- Khalil, Adnan Abdul Karim:

- Sultan Al-Seljuk al-Ba Arslan and his jihadist role in the Battle of Sanctuary of Kurd (364 Ah/ 1701 AD), research published in the journal Tikrit University of the Humanities, Volume 28, issue 4, C1, 2021.

- Aqla, Essam Mustafa:

- Women and power in Islam, the Seljuk sisters (447-511 Ah/1055-1117 AD) are models. Research publication, Journal of Humanities Studies, Volume 34, 2007.